Guide to using a spear

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Today, I present to you a guide on using a spear in reenactment combat. I will only discuss one-handed spear, as using spear in two hands is a topic deserving of a separate discussion in itself.

In my experience, using spear is one of those disciplines , which takes seconds to learn, and years to master. After all, a spear is just a long stick, with a metal point. To quote Zorro “pointy end goes in the other man”. Couldn’t be simpler! But, there are many ways in which to “stick the pointy end” in your opponent, and techniques, that ensure combat is both safe and entertaining, while remaining competitive.

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1- Hold it right!

Many of you will probably turn around and ask, why would anyone need rules on how to hold a spear. Well, there are some- every reenactment society will have different ones, and to keep this post at a manageable length, I will only quote rules from The Vikings society, which I am a member of.

There are just a few simple rules to follow:

Spear must be held in middle-third of it’s length. No ice-pick grip or holding it at the very end, to gain leverage or more reach. Reasons? Historical accuracy is one(show me one, just one historical reference to anyone ever holding a spear in combat by the very end of the shaft, I dare you…). Safety is another, as with gripping spear by the end you have little control and by using it as an ice-pick you can injure someone, or loose control (remember, there is some 4-6 feet of shaft behind you). Combat effectiveness is the last reason- by holding spear in the middle you get the best mix of reach, control, balance and speed.

Spear must be held overhand or underhand, with no couching it under your arm. The point of a spear must always point downwards, never upwards (this is to prevent face injuries, as when spear point’s up and you thrust with it, your opponent’s face is naturally where the point will go towards). This is again for safety reasons. In actual combat, you would happily stab people in the face- in reenactment, we avoid it at all costs.

That’s about it- also remember to always have both your feet planted on the ground, when making an attack with a spear.

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2- Hit zones:

When using a spear, hit zones is exactly the same as with any other weapon- the only difference is, you are not supposed to perform thrusts to the opponent’s legs. Instead, you should push the spear point past their leg and slash against it. This is to prevent knee injuries and leg injuries, which can be quite severe, when thrusting is involved. Thrusting to other body areas is fine, as long as it is done under control and blows are pulled.

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3- Defending with a spear:

While spear can be used to parry or deflect blows, it is not very good at it. Not only will vibrations caused by hits to the spearshaft make it difficult to hold on to the weapon, but also, if parry is not good enough you may loose control of your weapon, or have it batted out of your hand. Generally best way to defend is to use your shield, and/or dodge incoming blows. If you must parry with a spear, it is best to do it, using overhand grip, with spear tip pointing down. In this way, you can defend yourself rather well, while maintaining control of your weapon- simple move the spear to intercept any incoming blows. Major disadvantage however, is that you loose the ability to attack effectively. Defending with underhand grip is hard and I would not recommend it, unless you have no other option.

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4- Advantages of a spear:

Reach! While using a spear, you generally outreach most of your opponents. It is a huge advantage, especially while fighting in formation, where spears really come to the fore. The ability to hit an opponent while being out of their reach is a tremendous advantage. and any spearman must ensure to maximize it in combat. In a shieldwall, spears rule, and it is the spearmen who decide outcome of many battles. Remember, that with the extended reach, you have the ability to pick and choose your targets, and also engaged more than one person. As long as you have someone next to you with a hand weapon to parry incoming blows, you can concentrate on picking out enemy warriors.

Speed. While other weapons rely on slashing and hacking, with a spear you thrust to make an attack. As the fastest route between two points is a straight line, a thrusting attack tends to be faster then a slashing one. Spearmen can really take advantage of this, and thrust at incredible speeds- not only to kill their opponents, but simply to make nuisance of themselves, and force their opponents on the defensive. Sometimes, simply by putting in a blow against a shield, you can distract an opponent, or make then take a step back. This is very useful when holding a gap in a line, or trying to make a break-through. You would be surprised how many warriors I have seen retreat, or fail to attack, simply because I have been thrusting at their shields like mad with my spear, forcing them on the defensive by speed and ferocity of my attacks- none of which aimed to score a hit, but simply to create a psychological effect.

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Easy to use. To learn basic techniques of spearfighting takes very little time, and there are not many advanced techniques, unlike with a sword or an axe. Spear is a very straightforward weapon, but one which takes years of practice to master. There are some very nifty tricks for spearmen too (like using your spear to disarm your opponent, or performing a circular parry with it), but I would only recommend them if you have learned all the basics and are sure you can control your weapon and your blows at all times in the heat of a fight.

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5- Disadvantages of a spear:

Reach. Wait, what!? Yes, you read it right. Look at your spear. 4-6 feet of wood, ending with a pointy metal tip. Which bit inflicts damage? The metal bit. What happens when someone comes within 4 feet of you? You stab them with the metal bit. What happens when they are 2 feet away, or at a “bad breath distance”? Oh-oh. Once your opponent has made it past your spear-point you cannot harm them anymore. All you can do is retreat, to gain more distance, or defend like mad. Or abandon your spear in favour of a close-combat weapon. This is a big disadvantage of a spear, because one the enemy comes to close, it becomes useless. Keep that in mind, and always be ready to retreat/move away, or if you cannot, make sure you have someone with you who can deal with close-quarters melee. This is why it is important to have plenty of spears in a shieldwall, but even more important not to have TOO MANY spears in a shielwall.

Vulnerable in defense. As discussed above, defending with a spear, while possible, is not the most effective defense. Best thing to do, is to keep enemies at a distance and use your shield to good effect.

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6- Fighting techniques:

By far, the most common technique with a spear is a feint. Thanks to it’s speed, spear is really good at feinting, and with added reach you can exploits gaps in defense more easily. As discussed in my previous posts, the principles of a feint always remain the same: make it seem like you strike in one spot, while you actually do it somewhere else entirely. Deception, after all, is the basis of the art of war!

Waiting for a gap. This is not so much a  technique in itself, but just something spearmen do. because of your reach, you can attack not just the person in front, or immediately to your side- you can attack further down the line as well. Wait and watch your opponents, spear ready, to see if any of them will step out of line, lower their shield, or turn around a bit. As soon as you see a gap… Bang! Thrust right in, to score that Hit (or slash if it is a leg you are aiming for). This is probably my favorite thing about a spear, and I hope you will see why. All I need is for an opponent to make a mistake, and they are out. And believe me, in the heat of the battle we all leave ourselves exposed at one point or another. All a spearman must do is wait for the right moment to strike.

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One very useful trick I will discuss, is opening of the opponent’s shield. When in a fight, strike at the opponent’s shield, to the side opposite their weapon-hand. You will notice, if you push hard enough, that the shield will “open” and your opponents’s body becomes exposed. This is because you apply plenty of force to one spot, which a warrior holding a shield cannot do. The laws of bio-mechanics do the work for you! Once your opponent is exposed, you can do one of two things. You can: A) Wait for a comrade to attack the enemy while he is “open”. Perfect for teams of two spearmen, or fighting in a formation. B) Withdraw your weapon as fast as you can and attacking the still exposed body of your opponent. This requires plenty of speed and practice, but is deadly in a one-to-one fight. There are several more tricks and techniques spearmen use, but these are better left out in favour of more basic techniques, which will still do the job just as well.

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7- Practice:

Spear is a weapon, which you can train with very easily. All you need is the spear itself, some room and something to hit. Every technique I have discussed can be practiced with the very basic equipment, and you can do it almost anywhere. Spear is a weapon, which though rather simple in it’s use, does require a lot of repetition. You will use same styles and same hits over and over, and though it may seem too simplistic to even bother, believe me, without this constant repetition no one can become a good spearman. So, if you feel like giving it a go, go get yourself a spear and try it out. If you are using one already, compare your experiences to what I have described here- is there anything you would add?

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Til next time!

 

 

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How to use a shield- shieldwall/formation

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The question posed in the topic may seem a redundant one at first- after all a shield is just something you put in front on the body to take the blows. But is it really all that simple? Anyone who has been doing combat for a while will know, that there is more to using a shield than getting it in the way of the blow.

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Using a shield is a large topic, and therefore I will split it into two posts- one about formation and one about single combat.

First one to go, is the shieldwall. Most of reenactment fighting is done in formation, be it war-bands, hunting parties, or shieldwall clashes. In all of the above use of the shield is essential, and each one needs a slightly different approach.

1. Basic stance

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In shieldwalls and in loose formations, best way to hold a shield is square in front of youd body, some 6 inches away from you, keeping it straight. Do not put the shield too high up or under your chin, because hits to the shield may cause you injury- I have seen people getting hit in their faces by their own shields simply because they held them too high, or at a wrong angle. Firm hold and good stance are essential. Do not put the shield too low either, because that will expose your chest and shoulders to hits, which means your battle-line career may be very short lived, and consist mostly of staring at the sky as a battlefield casualty. When in stance, put your shield leg(usually the left, if your are right-handed) in front, bend your knees slightly and keep feet wide, in an L shape, firmly on the ground.

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2. Adopting a shieldwall

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When warriors form a shieldwall, they overlap their shields, to form a barrier, with each shield locked by 2 others on either side of the warrior- exactly like a hoplite phalanx. When holding a shield in this formation, keep it perfectly straight, with your elbow touching your shield. When interlocking, push out with your elbow against your partner’s shield, while pulling in with your hand at the same time against your other partner’s shield, In this way, by creating even pressure, shields are kept tightly locked and even a large, burly viking running at full speed should not break through the formation, but be repelled- as if hitting a wall.

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3. Using the shield to defend

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In this formation, shield should not move a lot relatively to each other, as this breaks up the formation. Blows to the upper body should be parried with your weapon if they are directed at your shoulders or taken on the shield if directed at the chest. To defend lower body you may quickly put your shield down, and bring it straight back up. A shieldwall relies on everyone keeping formation and keeping their shields locked- it is when this formation breaks up, that a battle is lost or won, therefore your shield should move as little as possible and only when necessary. Shieldwall combat consists mostly of parrying incoming blows and so it is important to parry with your weapon as well as the shiled and only strike when an opportunity presents itself.

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Larger shields are more useful in the shieldwall, as they cover more of your body, and do not require moving a lot. Beware of creating too large shields though, because if a man holding a 38″ shield is slain, this creates a huge gap in the wall through which enemies can push through- this is when the discipline, training and skill of the warriors in formation comes into play, as their task is to cover the gap without breaking their own shieldwall.

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Smaller shields are less useful in the middle of a formation, but can be very handy at the edges of it, where warrior are more liable to split off or try to flank the opponent. Greater maneuverability of smaller shields helps greatly when it comes to more flexible fighting required at the flanks- though large shields can and are used there too. There are no set rules about which shield goes where, and a lot will depend on individual preference and battlefield situation.

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A lot of the time your opponents will try to force your shield open, hook it out of position, or take control of it to create a gap. This is when keeping together a s a formation becomes hugely important, because a shieldwall is like a chain- only a strong as its weakest link. Hand axes, two-handed spears, dane axes all can be successfully used to hook shields, or force them out of the formation by using leverage. Experience and discipline will prevent this from happening, but only if your train, you will be prepared to deal with these situations. Keep your shield in the wall, stay together with your unit and be aware of what is happening around you- remember that the killing blow seldom comes from the man you are facing, but mostly from those to your side, with attacks you do not see coming. Keeping your shield in a good position is essential to counter those blows.

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Sometimes a shieldwall may adopt a more loose formation, where instead of locking shields together, warriors will keep them “rim to rim” or with tiny gaps left between them. Same will happen when fighting skirmishes between war-bands and hunting parties. This allows for a greater freedom of movement, so you can move your shield more freely, and move about as and when needed around the battlefield- but remember to stay in formation, and keep the shield in a good stance, straight in front of you at all times.

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Important- never angle your shield towards your face when in a shieldwall, this may cause glancing blows to come up and hit your head or face, causing serious injury. Nor should you angle it downwards, as this will leave you vulnerable to hits on the shoulders and chest, and make it easy to hook your shield with an axe or force it open with a spear thrust.

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4. Using a shield in an attack

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When attacking in a formation, it is equally important- nay, imperative- to keep up your defence. One can parry incoming blows all day, but it is usually when one puts in an attack, that the killing blow comes in. When attacking do not expose parts of your body, keep your shield in front and locked with other warriors. Be aware of your surroundings, and always be ready to parry or attack as opportunity presents itself- but the golden rule is, keep your defence tight, and keep your shield in a good position, ready to parry.

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When advancing, same rules apply, keep pushing, stay in formation, keep the line and move as a unit- all the while keeping your shield in an optimum position, at a right angle and right in front of you. Important- do not press your shield tight against your body, but keep it away some 6-8 inches. In this way, you have better control over the shield and more freedom of movement, plus, should any blow penetrate the shield- and I have seen it happen plenty of times- the weapon will not strike directly at your body.

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Hopefully with the basic tips above you will have a better understanding of how to use a shield when in battle. Obviously there are some more advanced techniques, but these are best taught in training, with your fellow warriors. Remember- it is training that makes perfect, and shield training is one of, if not the most, important things you will do as a warrior.

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Yorvik Viking Festival 2015

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Hello and Welcome, to my account of the 31st annual Yorvik  Viking Festival which took place in York in February 2015.

This was the first reenactment show of this season, and will also be one of the biggest. In Yorvik, reenactors gather from across the UK and Europe, for w whole week of living history displays, markets, talks, lectures, workshops and battles.

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The numbers of people attending were in the hundreds- and that is not counting the public.

The event itself is a great one, with plenty to see and do- I myself only arrived for the last day of the festival (drat you work!) when the culminating battles and events took place.

My first steps after arriving, were to the market, where I purchased myself some new shiny things (shoes, spearhead and a pouch). So many pretty things and never enough money to spend!

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After the purchases, and a brief lunch, time came for the first battle of the day- a series of three competitive clashes, where the best side would win. Just look at the photo below, to give you the idea of the numbers of warriors involved:

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But I am getting ahead of myself! Before the battle, there was the muster, and a parade through the York town centre, with scores of Vikings terrorising the innocent bystanders, and occasionally stopping to take a photo with the kids (large and small and even some actual kids!).

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Only once we have all arrived at the battlefield, did the real fight begin. As you may be aware, an event of this size will draw many different groups, from different societies, or even countries. Each reenactment society will have it’s own rules and regulations- so the first order of the day was to agree upon a set of rules to be used (done of course well in advance of the festival by the organisers). As always with a large group of people, used to different sets of rules, problems will arise- I could go on for eternity about rules differences and attitude of warriors/groups. Instead I will have just a small grumble- mainly that the societies were not split evenly, leaving one side very outmatched, and that there were many safety, honesty and attitude problems from one side (which shall of course, remain nameless)- suffice to say, battle could have been organised better. Nevertheless, it was huge fun to be a part of and to see this many warriors clash and actually be in the thick of it was reward enough!

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After the competitive battles, came the time for a brief respite and a bite of food- before the main event of the day, a recreation of a mythical battle between the Vanir and the Aesir Gods from the Norse mythology, which focused on the events of the great war between these two factions.

Battle was played out at night, with torches and spot lights lighting the battlefield. It was fully scripted and purely for show, with warriors encouraged to make as much noise, clamour and be as “showy” as possible.

Result? The battle was amazing, lasted for a long time and with assistance of special effects, music, narration and many enthusiastic participants it turned out to be an incredible experience- easily the best show fight I ever took part in.

There is a series of videos on YouTube, showing highlights from the battle:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrJiSDIo3ts

All credit goes to the user Jonathon Cox, who kindly uploaded the videos.

Once the battle was over, we got to see the wonderful fireworks display, before picking ourselves up and preparing to celebrate the night away with ale, song and laughter. First show of the season done, and I am looking forward to the rest of it!

Credit for photos goes to Allan Harris, Gina Self and Trudie Jayne Blade.

Until next time!

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Hand Axe- a closer look

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As you may remember, I have written a post some months ago, presenting the virtues of a hand axe and trying to raise its profile a little in comparison to the sword. In this post, rather than introduce the weapon, I will present a more comprehensive guide to the various techniques and tricks available to an axeman. The more experienced warriors will probably not learn anything new, but I would welcome your comments and opinions, while the beginners will ( I hope!) learn some interesting and useful stuff to help them become more proficient!

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Axe In The Shieldwall

In my opinion, axes rule in the shieldwall, pure and simple. Yes,  a sword is faster and has far larger cutting edge- but in the confines of a shieldwall, it is difficult to use these traits to their full advantage. With an axe, you need less space to use it effectively, have the same range, and you can shorten or lengthen your weapon, depending on how close-quarters you get. An axeman is comfortable to get extremely close to his opponent, which is especially useful if your line is making a decisive push forward, something that swordsmen and especially spearmen cannot handle this well.

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An axe is perfect for hooking shield and weapons in the enemy line. Simply hook an opponent’s shield down, hold it there for just a few seconds and wait for someone to put in that killing shot into the exposed body- this trick works best in tandem with a spearman, who can strike at an exposed body part the moment an axeman makes an opening. This makes axe-spear the deadliest weapon combination to face on the field, with much more versatility than just a pair of swords or even sword-spear, spear-spear combinations.

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In the same way you pull away shields, you may hook weapons, to keep the enemy occupied or to try to disarm them. Remember never to hook limbs, as this is dangerous, especially around knees, and to always pull down, when disarming or using a circular parry, to avoid a weapon flying through the air..

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Axes are also ideal for defending against spears- due to their top-heavy balance and larger contact area, they are superb for knocking spears down, or to the side. A good axeman can defend against a spearman for ages, preventing him from making any kills, and making it easier for his own line.

In Single Combat

When fighting as an individual, an axeman must remember the limitations of his weapon- ie. he will always be slower than a swordsman of same ability and will almost always be outfenced by one. He will also have control over his weapon and have only a small cutting edge to make kills with.

But the answer to these limitation, is not to play the swordsman’s game- instead enforce your own rules of engagement.

By far, the most popular trick is this: you rush forward, fending off incoming blows with your shield. Once you are very close to your opponent (one, maybe two feet) you shorten your axe’s haft and then pull your opponents shield out of their way- strike for their chest as soon as it becomes exposed by pushing your axe into it. Performed with confidence and fluidity, this move wins axemen most of their fights- but it is also a widely known trick and your opponent will expect it, making it harder to pull off.

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My personal favourite trick, is to attack the opponent’s weapon instead of their body, and attempt to take control of it. As soon as your opponent presents his weapon forward, strike for it, and try to hook your axe around it. Once you have your axe hooked on the opponent’s weapon, use a circular parry to move it out of your way, and step forward at the same time. Release your weapon, and use your shield to cover the enemy’s weapon, while you yourself strike for the exposed side/shoulder. This trick requires speed- to hook the weapon and move it out to one side, before the enemy can react- as well as good footwork, to ensure that when you step forward, you maintain your balance and you land exactly where you need to be in relation to your opponent. It is a more complicated technique and requires practice, but is very effective and may even result in your opponent loosing their grip on their weapon, and becoming disarmed.

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Another vital technique to use, is feints- even though the axe is not as fast as a sword, feints can be performed with just as much success, but the technique needs a little adjusting. I find it easier to follow through with my initial attack, and allow my opponent to block it. Once I have made contact with the shield, or the weapon, then I put another shot, this time to a different body part, in the same instant. This technique relies on your opponent to over-commit to his defense, so the initial shot must be really “sold” to them. With enough speed and practice you should be able to make your next (“the real”) attack to connect with the body. As with most feints, this works best with a high-low feint: strike high, for the shoulder, and once the enemy has committed to defense and the blow has connected, with all speed you strike low, trying to get underneath the shield or past their weapon. This relies a lot on you being able to convincingly put in big, scary shots, forcing the opponent to commit fully to their defense.

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Shieldwork, is yet another very important element of using the axe effectively. I find, that with an axe, a flexible stance and active (even aggressive) shieldwork are required. What do I mean by it? Well, normally, a warrior will keep their shield static, only moving it as little as necessary, to parry incoming blows. I tend to move mine a lot instead, but always with a purpose in mind. I will actively put my shield in the way of an opponent’s weapon, almost “punching” into the blow, or follow their weapon around, wherever it goes. If I can, I will make sure that their weapon makes contact with my shield, so that I can feel where it is, and “glue” my shield to their weapon, to render it effectively useless. Often, I will try to hook my opponent’s shield away using my own, or to block their field of vision with it.

Parry-riposte is also very useful trick, where you parry a blow with a shield, and momentarily take control of the weapon, by forcefully pushing it, or skilfully rolling it, out of your way and to the side. At the same time, strike your opponent back, into the opening you have just created.

The above techniques are more advanced, and require very good footwork, flexible stance and fast reactions, as well as experience. A good idea is to practice slowly, at half-speed at first and gradually speed things up, as you become more confident using these techniques.

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Another trick, while simple, is rather brutal: simply batter the opponent into submission, launching attack after attack, left, right and centre. Keep your defence solid and keep on attacking, never giving them a moment’s rest. Advance forward and push on, and do not give the enemy a second’s respite. As a result, less experienced, or more timid warriors ( as well as those more used to “fencing matches” and “tappy shots”) will often make a mistake, either by loosing their balance, panicking or even becoming tired and slowing their reactions down. This technique requires aggression, control (be aggressive, but always safe and always pull your blows), stamina and good defense. More experienced or more naturally aggressive warriors will not fall for this trick, so judge your opponent wisely.

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These are a majority of available techniques and tricks, but not an exhaustive list. Warriors with more years under their belts than myself will surely have something to add and improve!

Also, the techniques shown above would all be used by actual warriors on the battlefields of the Viking Age (they would not of course pull blows or be concerned with safety rules!). I hope this was an interesting and informative post- feel free to put your comments and add further to the topic!

Beaumaris- the show that (almost) didn’t happen

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So, the last weekend I was invited over to attend a minor show, organised by a University reenactment group in a beautiful castle called Beaumaris on the Welsh coast. I have managed to hitchhike a lift with one of my friends and we went off to the show nice and early.

The place was beautiful, the castle was amazing and the show itself- despite having barely any public and being only a minor event- was a mountain-sized heap of tremendous fun. And to think that it was almost cancelled… Before we begin- most of the photos included in this post were taken by Mr Gary Phillips, to whom I extend my deepest gratitude for making these available. You can easily reckognize which ones they were, as they are the quality ones!

So, on with the show! Here we are, after three hour drive, arriving at the castle gates, only to be told, that the show was cancelled, because there was no Risk Assessment send over… The panic, the anger, the frustration! Eventually the problem got sorted and as it turned out the Assessment was send over indeed, only it got lost somewhere… Phew! (and bravo castle, bravo…)

So, we could finally unload, gear up and enter the castle.

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All the equipment got put away, and we were ready to begin. There was an added bonus, as we had a medieval reenactment group attending the show, which would put up their display alongside our own. We were planning to get an inter-period battle going, but these plans were foiled by… RAIN!

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The rainfall was so heavy, that it made inter-period fight impossible, as it would have been simply too dangerous to do. At one point, we even considered calling the whole thing off, as we were wading in water up to our ankles. Fortunately, we got a bit of luck in, and the rain stopped. The Vikings were, of course, first out to do the fighting, and in the absence of public, we have fought just for the sheere fun of it. Duels between individual warriors, small warband competition and a few Combat Circles followed:

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Once we were tired, and the ground dried up some more, the medieval group went on to the arena, and this time, since there was actually come public around, gave a proper display, showing their weapons, armour and giving a bit of a talk, as well as a drill and combat display.

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And, once they were finished, it was time for us, the Vikings to make a display of our own. In a truly Viking style, we have stolen the show completely, and gave the public enough excitement to last them a fortnight (raise your horns and drink to the Vikings- hurray!).

Starting off with talk of weapons and armour, we then moved on to Viking military drill:

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After which, we had showed them how the weapons work in practice (by the way of display duels) and gave them a taste of shieldwall battle as well. We fought, we hacked, we screamed and charged, and the public (however small it was) cheered and enjoyed themselves to the point that only free beer would have made it better (ok, maybe it was not THAT amazing, but it was really good, I promise). Also- if you have spotted a guy wearing Norman/Crusader outfit, award yourself ten points- he will crop up more in the coming pictures, and yes, it is our show and we can include any kit we like! Obviously, we did point out to the public, that he was wearing Norman outfit and that Vikings DID NOT look like this.

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When our show was finally done, we have stayed on for a few more rounds of Combat Circles, both individual and as teams of two. I honestly cannot remeber how long it took us but it must have been an hour of clashing. About which none of us had any complaints at all, if anything, we wished we could stay on for longer!

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The great thing about visiting places like this and being with people you have never met before, is that you get to learn a lot. In just one day, I have faced opponents, with vastly different fighting styles, some of which I have never faced before. As a warrior, it is incredibly important to fight against as many styles as possible. Only through this, one can gather the experince necessary to truly excel in combat. I for one, have learned quite a few new tricks and counter-measures, and seen some very interesting developments in fighting technique, especially in the stance and the way the shield is held in relation to one’s body. It was a very valuable experience, as is any show with this amount of fighting going on.

All in all, it was an amazing day, during which I got to meet some really great people, learned a lot of new thigns and had immense fun, not to mention the exercise! I thoroughly recommend for you visit the beautiful castle of Beaumaris if you can, and I will look forward to my next show!

Big thank you, to all the people who attended the show and made it happen- you gus deserve a medal. Until next time!

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